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مدیر وبلاگ : Ahoore
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لبنان

لبنان من أصغر الأقطار العربیة مِساحة ، یشغل حوالی 10.400كم2 ، یقع فی الطرف الشرقی للبحر الأبیض المتوسط، والطرف الغربی لقارة آسیا. وقد كان هذا الموقع مركزًا مهمًّا للنقل والتجارة والمال لعَشَرات السنین. یُشتهر لبنان بشواطئه الرملیة وبجباله الخضراء الممتدة بموازاة الساحل.عدد سكان لبنان یزید عن الثلاثة ملایین نسمة. ویعیش فی بیروت وحدها، حوالی رُبْع إجمالی السكان. ویُمثل العرب: مسلمین ونصارى، حوالی 90 % من السكان.

One of the smallest Arabian countries, located on the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea and the western side of Asia. Its surface area is 10,400 square kilometers. For thousands of years Lebanon remained an important center of commerce and transportation. The country is famous for its sandy beaches and green mountains extending along the coast. The number of its inhabitants exceeds 3 million, one quarter of which live in Beirut. Arabs; Muslims and Christians constitute nearly 90% of the total number of inhabitants.

أدت الخلافات السیاسیة بین أكبر الطوائف النصرانیة ( الموارنة) من جهة والمسلمین ومنظمة التحریر الفلسطینیة من جهة ثانیة إلى نُشوب حرب أهلیة اندلعت عام 1975 م ودامت أكثر من سبعة عشر عامًا. جَلَبت هذه الحرب الموت والدَّمار والأزمات الاقتصادیة. ویُعرف لبُنان بأنه مُلتقى لمختلف النزعات الدینیة، والثقافیة والسیاسیة، مما ساعد على انفتاحه على العالم الخارجی.

Lebanon is known for being the meeting point of different religions, cultures and political parties with the increase in political disagreements between a Christian sect (the Maronites) and the Muslims together with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a civil war broke out in 1975. It lasted for more than 17 years, resulting in the destruction of the whole country and in an economic crisis.

نظام الحُكم :

Ruling system

نظام الحُكم فی لبنان جمهوری. یَنتخب مجلس النواب رئیسًا للجمهوریة لمدة ست سنوات، ولفترة واحدة غیر قابلة للتجدید. یختار رئیس الجمهوریة رئیسًا للوزراء ویُكلفه بتألیف الحكومة. یختار رئیس الحكومة المكلف الوزراء، وتُطرح قائمة الوزراء على مجلس النواب لِنَیْل الثِّقة، وبعد موافقة رئیس الجمهوریة على التشكیلة الوزاریة، یمارس مجلس الوزراء دوره فی تنفیذ السیاسات الحكومیة.

Lebanon is a republic. The Parliament elects the president for an unrenewable period of six years. The president chooses a Prime Minister who is responsible for forming the government and chooses the ministers. The list of ministers is presented to the Parliament for approval. After the approval of the president, the ministers’ council starts putting government polices into effect.

یمثل رئیس الجمهوریة والوزراء السلطة التنفیذیة . أما مجلس النواب فیُمثل السلطة التشریعیة فی الدولة. یتم انتخاب أعضائه مباشرة من الشعب مرة كل أربع سنوات، ویتكون المجلس بطریقة الانتخاب النِّسبی. ومنذ اتفاق الطائف الذی جَرَت على أساسه انتخابات یونیة 1991 م ، تساوى عدد النواب المسلمین والنصارى، وكانت هذه الانتخابات هی أول انتخابات نِیابیة تُجرى فی لبنان منذ اندلاع الحرب الأهلیة.

The president and the ministers constitute the executive power,while Parliament represents the legislative power. Members of Parliament are elected by the people every four years. Since the Al Taaef agreement upon which the elections of June 1991 depended, the number of the Muslim members is now equal to number of Christian ones. These were the first parliamentary elections in Lebanon since the out break of the civil war.

ومن أجْل الحفاظ على توازن سیاسی بین المسلمین والنصارى توصل الزعماء اللبنانیون الذین قادوا حركة الاستقلال إلى مِیثاق وطنی غیر مكتوب حُددت بموجبه المراكز الرئیسیة فی الدولة. وأصبح من المتفق علیه أن یكون رئیس الجمهوریة من النصارى المارونیین، وأن یكون رئیس الوزراء من المسلمین السُّنَّة، ورئیس مجلس النواب من المسلمین الشیعة.

In order to keep a political balance between Muslims and Christians, the Lebanese leaders of the independence movement agreed upon an unwritten protocol in which the main positions and titles of the country were determined. Since then, the president of the country should has always been a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister a Sunni Muslim, and the head of the parliament a Shiah Muslim.

الموقع :

Location:

یحُد لبنان من الشرق والشمال سوریا، ومن الجنوب فلسطین المحتلة، ویطل على البحر الأبیض المتوسط من الغرب بسواحل صخریة مرتفعة تقطعها بعض السهول الصغیرة أو الضیقة مثل: سهل طرابلس، وسَهْل عكار فی الشمال، وسَهْل صَیْدا فی الجنوب.

Lebanon is surrounded by Syria on the east and north sides, and by Palestine on the south. In the west, Lebanon overlooks the Mediterranean Sea. This area is full of rocky coasts with small narrow plains, such as: Tripoli plain, Akaar in the north and Sidon in the south.

الاقتصاد:

Economy:

یفتقِر لبنان إلى الموارد الأولیة والمعدنیة، والصناعات الرئیسیة، ولذلك فإن الاقتصاد اللبنانی منخفض المستوى بشكل عام، فیما عدا مجال المال والمصارف والسیاحة. وتقوم شُهرة لبنان على الدور المالی الناتج عن تدفق أموال البلاد العربیة ، وعلى التجارة الضخمة التی تمر بها، كما یوفر النِّفط – الذی كان یمر بها قادمًا من العراق والمملكة العربیة السعودیة – نحو 30 % من دخل لبنان.

Lebanon’s economy is small much; it lacks primary and mineral resources as well as main industries. The country depends mainly on tourism and on the influx of the Arabian capital. This is in addition to the huge amount of commerce and goods passing by throug, such as oil coming from Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and which froms approximately 30 % of the country’s income.

نُبْذة تاریخیة:

Historical Background:

العصور القدیمة: یُعتبر الإغریق أول من سكن لبنان. ویعتقد أنهم وصلوا إلى الإقلیم من الجنوب نحو عام 3000 ق.م وكان الإغریق بحارة وتجارًا وملاحین ومكتشفین، وقد أسسوا دولة مستقلة قویة على طُول الساحل.

Ancient history:The Greeks were the first people to reach Lebanon. They entered the country from the south gate in the year 3000 B.C. The Greeks were good sailors, merchants and discoverers and They established a strong independent country along the coast.

منذُ القرن التاسع عشر قبلَ المیلاد سیطرت قُوى أجنبیة أخرى على البلاد فی عصور مختلفة، ومن هؤلاء المصریون، والحیثیون، والآشوریون، والبابلیون، والفرس. وأخیرًا الإسكندر الأكبر. وفی عام 64 ق.م خَضَع الإقلیم لحُكم الإمبراطوریة الرومانیة، ولا تزال آثار المنشآت الرومانیة موجودة حتى الآن. وتضم هذه الآثار المعابد الضخمة فی بَعْلَبَك بسهل البِقاع وبلدة بیت مری بالقرب من مدینة بیروت. وقد دخلت النصرانیة إلى لبنان نحو عام 523م. وفی عام 395 م أصبح الإقلیم جزءًا من الإمبراطوریة البِیزنطیة التی تُعد استمرارًا للإمبراطوریة الرومانیة.

After the nineteenth century B.C. foreigners took full control of the country, among which were the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the the Bablonians, the Persians and finally Alexander the Great. In the year 64 B.C. Lebanon became part of the Roman Empire.Until the present day monuments indicate the presence of the Romans, such as the huge temples in Baalbak in the Bekaa valley and the city of Bait Merii near Beirut. Christianity was introduced in Lebanon in the year 523 A.D. and in the year 395 A.D. Lebanon became part of the Byzantine Empire, an extension of the Roman Empire.

الحُكم الإسلامی:

Islamic Rule:

دخل الإسلام لبنان فی القرن الأول الهجری. السابع المیلادی، وحَل بالتدریج محل النصرانیة على طُول الساحل اللبنانی. ومع ذلك استمرت النصرانیة فی مناطق المرتفعات.

Islam was introduced in to Lebanon in the 1st century A.H. (the seventh A.D). Gradually it replaced Christianity along the whole coast of Lebanon, although Christianity prevailed in the hills.

الحكم العثمانی والاستقلال:

The Turkish Era and Independence:

استطاع الأتراك العثمانیون فی عام 922هـ ، 1516 م دُخول لبنان، وجعلوه جزءًا من الدولة العثمانیة. وقد حَصَل جبل لبنان – وهو الجزء الأوسط من البلاد – على حكم ذاتی محدود بقیادة زعمائه المحلیین. وقد حكمت الدولة العثمانیة لبنان حتى الحرب العالمیة الأولى ( 1914 – 1918 م) ثم احتلته فرنسا.

The Ottoman Turks took control over Lebanon in the year 922 A.H. (1516 A.D). and Lebanon became part of the Ottoman Empire. However the central area of Lebanon-(Mount Lebanon)- gained self-rule with the help of its leaders. The Ottoman government ruled Lebanon till the end of the World War I (1914-1918 A.D.), when it was occupied by France.

الحرب الأهلیة:

Civil War:

انفجرت عام 1975 م بین الموارنة من جهة والمسلمین من جهة أخرى. وقد قُتِل فی هذه الحرب عَشَرات الآلاف من الطرفین، وحَدَث دَمار واسع فی الممتلكات. وفی ربیع عام 1976 م أرسلت سوریا آلافًا من قواتها إلى لبنان فی محاولة لاستعادة النظام.

The civil war broke out in Lebanon between the Maronites and Muslims in 1975 A.D. Thousands of people were killed and the country completely destroyed. During the spring of 1976. Syria sent thousands of troops to Lebanon to help it restore the regime.

التطورات الأخیرة:

Lebanon today:

فی 5 نُوفمبر عام 1989 م انتخب النواب رئیسًا جدیدًا من النصارى هو رینیه معوض، لكنه اُغتیل فی 22 نوفمبر. وقام النواب بانتخاب إلیاس الهراوی ( عن نصارى لبنان ) رئیسًا للجمهوریة، كما وافقت على اتفاق یعطی معظم السلطة الحكومیة للأغلبیة المسلمة فی البلاد، ولكن عون رَفَض الاعتراف بالاتفاق، وأصبحت الدولة غیر قادرة على إقامة حكومة جدیدة واحدة. وفی أكتوبر عام 1990 م استطاعت القوات السُّوریة هزیمة قوات عون.

On the 5 November 1989. Parliament elected a new president among the Christians, Renee Moawad,He was assassinated on 22 November of the same year. Elias Al Harrawy was then elected as president. Parliament agreed to give most of the authority of the government to Muslims who represent the majority of the inhabitants. However Michiel Oon refused this agreement. In October 1990 the Syrian forces defeated Oon’s army.

أمرت الحكومة جمیع المیلیشیات فی الدولة بأن تحل نفسها وتنزع سلاحها، ونفذت معظم المیلیشیات الأمر فی منتصف عام 1991 م. وأدت هذه التطورات إلى وَضْع نهایة لمعظم القتال فی لبنان، وتفرغت الحكومة اللبنانیة بعد ذلك لعملیات إعادة التعمیر فی البلاد وإصلاح ما أفسدته الصراعات المسلحة.

By 1991 the government had succeded in disarming most of the militias and putting an end to the civil war. After the war the government started re-constructing the country and repairing what had been destroyed.





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جمعه 3 شهریور 1391 :: نویسنده : Ahoore
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